Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST) deploys a closely-spaced train of 6U CubeSats carrying identical low-mass, low-power millimeter-wave radiometers. The TEMPEST train samples rapid changes in convection and the surrounding water vapor by observing every three to four minutes for up to 25-30 minutes. The millimeter-wave radiometers on TEMPEST provide soundings of mid-tropospheric water vapor to improve understanding of its role in the growth and organization of convection in various large-scale environments. The TEMPEST instrument observes at five millimeter-wave frequencies from 89 to 182 GHz. By rapidly sampling the life cycle of convection, TEMPEST fills a critical observational gap and complements existing and future satellite missions.
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