• The TEMPEST mission concept deploys a closely-spaced train of CubeSats that carry identical low-mass, low-power millimeter-wave radiometers with full heritage from TEMPEST-D. The TEMPEST satellite train samples rapid changes in convection and the surrounding water vapor by observing every 3-4 minutes for up to 30 minutes. Image courtesy of NASA JPL.
  • Todd Gaier, Heather Lim, Alan Tanner, Sharmila Padmanabhan, Rudi Bendig and Boon Lim (left to right) in the laboratory with the Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems – Demonstration (TEMPEST-D) instrument at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Image courtesy of NASA.
  • Artist's conception of TEMPEST-D satellite on orbit. Image courtesy of Blue Canyon Technologies.
  • Boon Lim of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Natali Vannoy of Blue Canyon Technologies preparing to integrate the Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems – Demonstration (TEMPEST-D) instrument into the spacecraft at Blue Canyon Technologies in Boulder, CO. Image courtesy of Blue Canyon Technologies.
  • The Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems – Demonstration (TEMPEST-D) satellite at Blue Canyon Technologies in Boulder, CO. Image courtesy of Blue Canyon Technologies.
  • TEMPEST-D Team Members at the launch of Orbital ATK's 9th commercial resupply mission from NASA Wallops to the ISS on 5/21/18. From left to right: Rudi Bendig (JPL), Mary Soria (JPL), Sharmila Padmanabhan (JPL), Ann Batchelor (CSU), Bob Bauer (NASA ESTO Prog. Mgr), Steven Reising (CSU), Cate Heneghan (JPL).
  • Expedition 56 Flight Engineer Serena Auñón-Chancellor installs the NanoRacks Cubesat Deployer-14 (NRCSD-14) on the Multipurpose Experiment Platform inside the Japanese Kibo laboratory module. The NRCSD-14 was then placed in the Kibo airlock and moved outside of the space station to deploy a variety of cubesats into Earth orbit. Image courtesy of NASA.

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Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST) deploys a closely-spaced train of 6U CubeSats carrying identical low-mass, low-power millimeter-wave radiometers.  The TEMPEST train samples rapid changes in convection and the surrounding water vapor by observing every three to four minutes for up to 25-30 minutes.  The millimeter-wave radiometers on TEMPEST provide soundings of mid-tropospheric water vapor to improve understanding of its role in the growth and organization of convection in various large-scale environments.  The TEMPEST instrument observes at five millimeter-wave frequencies from 89 to 182 GHz.  By rapidly sampling the life cycle of convection, TEMPEST fills a critical observational gap and complements existing and future satellite missions.

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